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●「飛幡祐規 パリの窓から」第55回 (2019/6/2）
韓国での再開発計画に抗議する住民に、警察特殊部隊が 強制退去しようとして、住民５人、警官１人が死亡した 事件への抗議と調査、再開発計画の見直しを求める、国際署名運動
（要旨） 韓国ソウル市Yongsan-Guにて２月に始まる再開発のため 強制退去させられることになる人々など５０人が抗議のため、 前日から籠もっていた古いビルに、何の事前通告もなく、 １月２０日午前６時、１，５００人の警察特殊部隊が派遣され 対テロ作戦を行った際に発火が起こり、抗議者５人と警官１人が死亡。 （訳注：直接の死因は同文からは不明）
抗議活動開始から２４時間も経たないうちに、対テロ任務の 特殊部隊が派遣されるのは、韓国でも非常にまれであるが、 保守政権が復活して以来、警察は抗議活動の取り締まりにおいて 暴力を使用することが多くなっている。そのような背景で、 今回の事件が生じた。市民活動組織からなる事実究明員会が 調査を行っているが、政府は速やかな事態収拾を図ろうとして いる。
我々は、居住権を確保するため抗議して亡くなった方達の安らかな眠りを祈る。 これらの死に関し哀しみと怒りを持って、遺族に哀悼の意を捧げる。 我々は尊厳をもって生きることへの要求が死に変えられてしまったことの現実に やり場のない気持ちを感じつつ、政権に反対する遺族と他の人々たちを支援する。
我々はこの事件の根底に、韓国での土地再開発進行の問題があり、さらに それが公的権力を専横して過度に行使することに起因しているという事実 に注目する。我々は韓国政府が、強制退去に抗議して居住権を守ろうとした、 自国の市民を攻撃したことを遺憾とする。
特殊部隊派遣は、市民をテロリスト集団としてレッテルを貼る行為であり、 それは、市民権を敬い守るという、国家の義務に反するものである。 その上政府は、事態収拾を急ぎ、遺族の同意もなく死者の遺体解剖を行った ことで、自らの公正さと市民の信頼を損なった。
我々は遺族に謝罪し、今後同様な事件が起こるのを阻止する対策を取るよう、 政府に求める。我々は今回の事件の責任を、ソウル警察長官Seokgi Kim, 公共行政保安省大臣Sehoon Won, Yongsan-Gu自治体首長Jangkyu Park, Yong-san警察署長Dongsan Baekに求める。
我々は、土地再開発計画の目的が居住権の向上に基づくべきであること ことを確認する。我々は、韓国での土地再開発が、国際人権法に基づく 手段に従うよりはむしろ、建設会社のような、一部野企業の利益獲得手段 となったことを懸念する。
国際人権法の観点では、強制退去は明らかに人権侵害である。韓国政府は ICESCR(International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights ) 署名国として、強制退去を阻止する方法を採るべき立場でありながら、 居住権を実現しようとした市民に対し、自ら警察の特殊部隊を導入し、 その結果５人の市民とひとりの警官の死亡を招いた。
韓国内のいくつかの人権団体によれば、土地再開発計画区域の住人による 適切な保護と交渉に関するこの一年間の要求は、Yongsan-Gu 役所により 拒否された。住民は再居住計画の作成を数度以来したが、何の解答も 得られなかった。強制退去を目前にし、絶望のあまり、これらの住民は 抗議活動を行い、命を失うことになった。
・Myung-bak Lee, the president of South Korea http://www.bluehouse.go.kr/kr/index.php
Urgent Appeal for immediate action
In South Korea, 5 people died while protesting against an imminentforced eviction
At 6 a.m. on 20th January, people who were asking for solutions to avoid eviction in February in Youngsan-Gu, Seoul lost their lives as a consequence of violent oppression from the police. A 1500 strong police force was dispatched to disperse about 50 protesters. The police actions taken toward these protesters were similar to those taken in times war. Less than a day after those facing eviction started protesting and without further conversations or an effort to discuss the issues, the government dispatched a special police force and staged an anti-terror operation. After the police entered the building where the protesters were, a fire broke out and the circumstances became dangerous. However, without taking any safety measures, the police proceeded with the operation which resulted in the death of 5 protesters and 1 police officer.
Dispatching a special police force for an anti-terror operation in less than 24 hours is a rare case even in South Korea. Since the Conservatives took power however, the police have often cracked down on protesters in a violent way. This incidence also happened under this context.
A place to pray for the dead was set up at the spot of the incident. Despite of it being the Korean New Year holiday, visits from people continue. A fact finding committee composed of civilian organizations is carrying out investigations whilst the government is trying to close the case as soon as possible.
It is well known that there are many problems coupled to rapid re-development projects in South Korea. Existing solutions (such as compensations, providing temporary place to stay etc) are neither realistic nor properly implemented. It is especially worrisome that forced eviction, which is prohibited under international human rights law, is being pursued under the auspices of the government.
South Korea, who is a signatory to the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights, was requested twice by the Committee on the Economic, Social and Cultural Rights to provide protection to victims of forced evictions. However, as shown in this case, the South Korea government violated its obligation to respect the right to an adequate housing and to not being forcibly evicted. It also violated its obligation to protect the safety and the life of victims of forced evictions.
For over a year, lodgers in the re-development project area demanded the Yongsan-Gu Office for appropriate protection. The Yongsan-Gu Office provided no opportunity for talk or negotiation. Local lodgers went to the Youngsan-Gu Office to file an appeal but got rejected. During this appeal process, private security officers hired by the construction company threatened the lodgers and sexually harassed them. However, the police did not take any action against the private security officer's practices. Despite the fact that eviction in the cold season requires the taking of special measures prior to the eviction, the Youngsan-Gu Office approved the construction company's request to initiate the re-development from February. Lodgers faced with forced eviction entered the empty building to stage protests against this process and lost their life due to violent police operation.
Lodgers living in re-development areas are excluded from both the process and results of re-development projects as they do not own a property in the area. Re-development to improve the housing condition causes inequality in housing as many lodgers have to move into a place worse than their previous housing. A serous problem is that in the previously re-developed area, only 10~15 % of local residents will get to stay in that same area.
Lodgers suffer a serious violation of their housing rights during the re-development process. The aim of re-development projects should be in improvement of housing conditions and relieving poverty for the people living there. The government is obliged to provide necessary information and guarantee participation for people living there regardless of their ownership of the housing. However, these demands are ignored by the government and the construction companies who get benefits from the re-development in South Korea.
On the other hand, the investigation carried out at the government level is criticized for being biased. The police carried out autopsies of the bodies of the victims without the consent of their families. The police report on the incident was revealed to be false in light of a variety of evidence reported by the major media. The police attitude, which is neither democratic nor transparent, creates deeper mistrust. A fair and impartial system for the investigation is urgently required. Rather than trying to close the case as soon as possible, an effort to prevent this kind of tragedy from happening again and a guarantee of democratic participation are required.
We would like to show international support at the second pan-national memorial for the dead. Please email us your supporting messages and let us know whether you would sign our statement by noon of the 30th January. Please also send us a copy of your complaints for those responsible. Sending complaints for those responsible continues until mid February.
Email to Sarangbang Group for Human Rights : email@example.com
1) Send us your supporting messages.
2) Please sign the statement below.
We urge the South Korean government to protect victims of forced evictions and to carry out a thorough investigation and punish the responsible for the deaths that occurred during the police action in Youngsan-Gu, Seoul 20th January 2009
We pray for the repose of the deceased who protested to secure the right to housing. With sorrow and anger about the deaths, we send our warmest regards to the family. We feel devastated with the reality that a demand for a living with dignity turned into a death and send our support to the family and people in South Korea who resist against the government.
We pay attention to the fact that this incidence was rooted in the problems of the re-development process in South Korea and resulted from a unilateral over-use of public power. We regret that the South Korean government has attacked its citizens who protested against forced eviction and tried to protect their right to housing. Dispatching a special police force is an act of labeling its citizens as a terrorist group, which is contrary to the state's obligation to respect and protect the rights of its citizens. The government further damaged its fairness and trust by trying to close the case as soon as possible and in carrying out autopsies of the bodies without consent of the family's concerned. We urge the South Korean government to apologize to the families concerned and come up with measures to prevent a similar case happening again in future. We demand the acceptance of responsibility for this incident from Seokgi Kim, the head of the Seoul Police, Sehoon Won, the minister of the Ministry of Public Administration and Security, Jangkyu Park, the head of the Yongsan-Gu Office, Dongsan Baek, the head of Yongsan Police
We confirm that the aim of re-development projects should lie on improving the right to housing. We are concerned that the re-development process in South Korea has become a means to earn more money for certain groups, such as construction companies, rather than follow an approach based on international human rights law. Under the international human rights perspective, forced evictions are a clear violation of human rights. Despite the fact that the South Korean government should, as a signatory to the ICESCR, take steps to prevent forced evictions, the government itself used police force against citizens who tried to realize their right to housing, resulting in the death of five citizens and one police officer. According to human rights organizations in South Korea, for over a year demands by lodgers in the re-development project area for appropriate protection, talks and negotiations were rejected by the Yongsan-Gu Office. They had asked several times to make plans for re-settlement but received no answers back. Out of desperation prior to the forced eviction, these people staged protests that cost them their lives. We urge the South Korean government to review any re-development projects that do not provide protection to the lodgers and that do not guarantee the participation of citizens.
Sending our support and expressing our solidarity to those in South Korea demanding a thorough investigation and punishment of the responsible, we urge the following:
3) Please, send any protesting messages to the following addresses:
Myung-bak Lee, the president of South Korea
Sehoon Won, the minister of the Ministry of Public Administration and Security
Seokgi Kim, the head of the Seoul Police
Sehoon Oh, the Mayor of Seoul (Metropolis)
Jangkyu Park, the head of the Yongsan-Gu Office
Created by Staff. Last modified on 2009-02-04 08:16:49 Copyright: Default